By Martin Heidegger

Features a sequence of lectures introduced via Heidegger in 1935 on the collage of Freiburg. during this paintings Heidegger offers the broadest and such a lot intelligible account of the matter of being, as he sees this challenge. First, he discusses the relevance of it by means of stating how this challenge lies on the root not just of the main simple metaphysical questions but in addition of our human lifestyles in its current ancient surroundings. Then, after a quick digression into the grammatical types and etymological roots of the note "being, " Heidegger enters right into a long dialogue of the that means of being in Greek pondering, letting go whilst no chance to emphasize the impression of this brooding about being on next western hypothesis. His competition is that the which means of being in Greek considering underwent a significant limit in the course of the competition that used to be brought among being on one hand, and turning into, visual appeal, pondering and values at the different.

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For every normally thinking man—and we all should like to be normal men—this reasoning is immediately and wholly convincing. But the question now arises: does the designation of being as the most universal concept strike the essence of being, or is it not from the very outset such a misinterpretation that all questioning becomes hopeless? This then is the question: can being be regarded only as the most universal concept which inevitably occurs in all THE FUNDAMENTAL QUESTION 41 special concepts, or is being of an entirely different essence, and hence anything but an object of "ontology/' provided we take this word in its traditional sense?

There are many indications of the emergence of this demonism, identical with the increasing helplessness and uncertainty of Europe against it and within itself. One of these signs is the emasculation of the spirit through misinterpretation; we are still in the midst of this process. This misinterpretation of the spirit may be described briefly in four aspects. 1. The crux of the matter is the reinterpretation of the spirit as intelligence, or mere cleverness in examining and calculating given things and the possibility of changing them and complementing them to make new things.

Though today two seemingly different conceptions of science seem to combat one another—science as technical, practical, professional knowledge and science as cultural value per se—both are moving along the same downgrade of misinterpretation and emasculation of the spirit. They differ only in this: in the present situation the technical, practical conception of science as specialization can at least lay claim to frank and clear consistency, while the reactionary interpretation of science as a cultural value, now making its reappearance, seeks to conceal the impotence of the spirit behind an unconscious lie.

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