By P. S. Meadows Ma. Ba. Fzs, J. I. Campbell Bsc, Fres (auth.)

It is now 9 years because the first version seemed and masses has replaced in marine technology in the course of that point. for instance, satellites at the moment are normally utilized in distant sensing of the sea floor and hydrothermal vents at sea ground spreading centres were broadly researched. the second one version has been significantly elevated and reorganised, and lots of new figures and tables were incorporated. each bankruptcy has been conscientiously up-to-date and lots of were rewritten. a brand new bankruptcy on man's use of the oceans has been integrated to hide satellites and place solving, renewable power assets within the sea, seabed minerals, oil and fuel, pollutants and maritime legislation. during this variation we've additionally noted a few unique references and evaluation articles in order that readers can locate their approach into the literature extra simply. As within the first version, PSM has been generally chargeable for the textual content and lIC for the illustrations, even supposing every one has answered to recommendation from the opposite and likewise from many colleagues. during this context readers should still word that the illustrations shape an crucial and significant a part of the publication. The textual content will in all probability be too concise for plenty of readers in the event that they don't research the illustrations conscientiously whilst. The booklet has been written as an introductory textual content for college kids, even though it can serve somebody who's starting a learn of the sea.

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The buoy is lowered onto the surface of the sea from a research vessel and the angle of the floats to the horizontal is electronically recorded on board (modified from Herring and Clarke, 1971). Tsunami Tsunami, misnamed tidal waves, are a succession of very fast low-amplitude long-wavelength waves which travel across oceans from volcanic explosions or earthq uakes. In the open ocean, speeds of 750 km h - 1, wavelengths of 24 km, and wave amplitudes ofless than a metre have been recorded. As they enter shallow water their speed falls because of friction with the bottom, and as a result their height may rise from a metre to 10 metres or more.

PHYSICS AND CHEMISTRY OF THE OCEANS 47 sibles difficult, and it is usually impossible to photograph objects without a photographic flash gun, or more than 10m away even under optimum conditions. The scattering of light by suspended material and plankton often reduces the effective distance to 1 m in coastal waters. Sound Sound in the sea is produced by wave motion at the air/sea interface, by sediment transport, and by a wide variety of animals including man. Sound travels much more quickly and further in water than in air.

The bathythermograph, which is a metre-long metal cylinder towed at up to 3 knots by a research vessel, measures temperature and depth by a sensor recording onto a small smoked glass plate. An expendable model has recently been developed, which allows a research vessel to continue cruising at full speed (8-12 knots) and so to save time and money (large research vessels may cost £1000 to £9000 per day to operate). Sophisticated pop-up systems carrying an array of electronic recording devices (temperature, current, salinity, depth) are now in use by a number of marine research laboratories.

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