By Pierre M. Nugues

This publication teaches the rules of average language processing and covers linguistics concerns. It additionally info the language-processing services concerned, together with part-of-speech tagging utilizing ideas and stochastic innovations. A key function of the e-book is the author's hands-on technique all through, with broad workouts, pattern code in Prolog and Perl, and an in depth advent to Prolog. The publication is acceptable for researchers and scholars of usual language processing and computational linguistics.

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Example text

The input abbc is presented to the start state q0 . The first character of the string matches that of the outgoing arc. The automaton consumes character a and moves to state q1 . The remaining string is bbc. Then, the automaton loops twice on state q1 and consumes bb. The resulting string is character c. Finally, the automaton consumes c and reaches state q2 , which is the final state. On the contrary, the automaton does not accept string abbcb. It moves to states q0 , q1 , and q2 , and consumes abbc.

1 Ambiguity Ambiguity is a major obstacle in language processing, and it may be the most significant. Although as human beings we are not aware of it most of the time, ambiguity is ubiquitous in language and plagues any stage of automated analysis. We saw examples of ambiguous morphological analysis and part-of-speech annotation, word senses, and references. Ambiguity also occurs in speech recognition, parsing, anaphora solving, and dialogue. McMahon and Smith (1996) illustrate strikingly ambiguity in speech recognition with the sentence The boys eat the sandwiches.

4. Correspondence between sentences and logical forms. Sentences Pierre wrote notes Pierre a écrit des notes Pierre schrieb Notizen Logical forms (predicates) wrote(pierre, notes). a_écrit(pierre, notes). schrieb(pierre, notizen). Representation is only one facet of semantics. Once sentence representations have been built, they can be interpreted to check what they mean. Notes in the sentence Pierre wrote notes can be linked to a dictionary definition. If we look up in the Cambridge International Dictionary of English (Procter 1995), there are as many as five possible senses for notes (abridged from p.

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