By C A Heaton (auth.), C A Heaton (eds.)

The significance of commercial chemistry Chemistry is a tough and engaging topic for tutorial research. Its rules and ideas are used to supply the chemical compounds from which all demeanour of fabrics and at last purchaser items are synthetic. the range of examples is gigantic, starting from cement to iron and metal, and directly to glossy plastics that are so common within the packaging of purchaser items and within the manufacture of home items. certainly existence as we all know it this day couldn't exist with no the chemical undefined. Its contribution to the saving of lives and reduction of ache is immeasurable; artificial medicinal drugs corresponding to these which reduce blood strain (e. g. /3-blockers), assault bacterial and viral infections (e. g. antibiotics corresponding to the penicillins and cephalosporins) and substitute important typical chemical compounds which the physique isn't really generating because of a few malfunction (e. g. insulin, a few vitamins), are fairly noteworthy during this appreciate. impression chemical substances additionally essentially make an impression on our daily lives. examples are using polytetrafluoroethylene (polytetrafluoroethene Teflon or Fluon) to supply a non-stick floor coating for cooking utensils, and silicones that are used to ease the release of bread from baking tins. it's going to even be famous that the chemical industry's actions have a power on all different industries, both when it comes to supplying uncooked fabrics or chemical substances for qc analyses and to enhance operation, and to regard boiler water, cooling water and effiuents.

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A second example of the occurrence in nature of materials in elemental form is air, which may be physically separated into its component gases by liquefaction and fractional distillation. In this way substantial amounts of nitrogen and oxygen, plus small amounts of the inert gases argon, neon, krypton, and xenon are produced. A recent development has been the use of zeolites (p. 320) for carrying out this separation. SOURCES OF CHEMICALS 19 In contrast to inorganic chemicals which, as we have already seen, are derived from many different sources, the multitude of commercially important organic compounds are essentially derived from a single source.

Incidents such as this led to a major tightening up of pollution laws in Japan and nowadays up to 50% of the capital cost of a new plant can be earmarked for pollution control equipment. 3 Thalidomide and drugs The thalidomide tragedy in 1961, in which some pregnant women who were prescribed the drug gave birth to grossly malformed babies, is one in which the companies involved (Chemie Griinenthal and Distillers) were criticized for not detecting this problem during testing of the drug before it was marketed.

There it was converted into the very toxic dimethyl mercury by microorganisms at the bottom of the sea. This substance concentrated in fish which were subsequently eaten by the victims. Incidents such as this led to a major tightening up of pollution laws in Japan and nowadays up to 50% of the capital cost of a new plant can be earmarked for pollution control equipment. 3 Thalidomide and drugs The thalidomide tragedy in 1961, in which some pregnant women who were prescribed the drug gave birth to grossly malformed babies, is one in which the companies involved (Chemie Griinenthal and Distillers) were criticized for not detecting this problem during testing of the drug before it was marketed.

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