By Nancy Gentile Ford
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Extra info for Americans All!: Foreign-born Soldiers in World War I
8 While many German American newspapers continued to report on the freedom campaign in Ireland, most limited their war protest to the reprinting of quotations from respectable mainstream English-language papers opposed to the end of neutrality. The Philadelphia Gazette-Democrat began publishing all its news and editorials in English, ending a forty-year tradition of the exclusive use of the German language. ” The newspaper did retain the German language in some sections, with the self-proclaimed “result” of spreading American “government aims and activities” to the subscribers who could not read English.
As they welcomed the leader to Pilsen Park in Chicago. ”47 Most of the recruiting drives clearly combined American patriotism with ethnic pride. In a moving speech, Lieutenant Horvat, a Slovakian clergyman serving in the Legion, told the audience, “There are no diﬀerences in the Czechoslovak Army. Czech and Slovaks stand as equals, and shoulder to shoulder, with one aim—to humble the age-old common enemy. . You in America know what liberty means. ”48 The Chicago Military Committee for the Czechoslovak Army recruited in the Midwest.
23 Speciﬁc ethnic groups became key targets for harassment, particularly German American communities. Hamburgers, sauerkraut, and German measles became liberty sandwiches, liberty cabbage, and liberty measles. School boards instructed students to cut out all references of Germany from their textbooks and canceled German language classes. Oﬃcials in many of the cities forbade the playing of Bach and Beethoven in public orchestras, and German art was removed from some city museums. For many German Americans, war hysteria resulted in violence and even death.