By Nancy Gentile Ford

During the 1st global struggle, approximately part 1000000 immigrant draftees from forty-six various international locations served within the U.S. military. This surge of outdated global squaddies challenged the yank military's cultural, linguistic, and spiritual traditions and required army leaders to re-evaluate their education tools for the foreign-born troops. How did the U.S. warfare division combine this assorted workforce right into a united scuffling with strength? The battle division drew at the studies of revolutionary social welfare reformers, who labored with immigrants in city payment homes, and so they listened to business potency specialists, who attached wrestle functionality to morale and body of workers administration. might be most importantly, the army enlisted assistance from ethnic neighborhood leaders, who assisted in education, socializing, and Americanizing immigrant troops and who harassed the army to acknowledge and meet the $64000 cultural and spiritual wishes of the ethnic squaddies. those neighborhood leaders negotiated the Americanization technique by means of selling patriotism and loyalty to the us whereas maintaining key ethnic cultural traditions. supplying a thrilling examine an unexplored zone of army background, american citizens All! Foreign-born squaddies in global struggle I constitutes a piece of unique curiosity to students within the fields of army historical past, sociology, and ethnic experiences. Ford's learn illuminates what it intended for the U.S. army to reexamine early twentieth-century nativism; rather than forcing squaddies right into a melting pot, conflict division regulations created an environment that made either American and ethnic satisfaction applicable. through the battle, a German officer commented at the ethnic variety of the yank military and famous, with a few amazement, that those ''semi-Americans'' thought of themselves to be ''true-born sons in their followed country.'' The officer was once unsuitable on one count number. The immigrant infantrymen weren't ''semi-Americans''; they have been ''Americans all!''

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8 While many German American newspapers continued to report on the freedom campaign in Ireland, most limited their war protest to the reprinting of quotations from respectable mainstream English-language papers opposed to the end of neutrality. The Philadelphia Gazette-Democrat began publishing all its news and editorials in English, ending a forty-year tradition of the exclusive use of the German language. ” The newspaper did retain the German language in some sections, with the self-proclaimed “result” of spreading American “government aims and activities” to the subscribers who could not read English.

As they welcomed the leader to Pilsen Park in Chicago. ”47 Most of the recruiting drives clearly combined American patriotism with ethnic pride. In a moving speech, Lieutenant Horvat, a Slovakian clergyman serving in the Legion, told the audience, “There are no differences in the Czechoslovak Army. Czech and Slovaks stand as equals, and shoulder to shoulder, with one aim—to humble the age-old common enemy. . You in America know what liberty means. ”48 The Chicago Military Committee for the Czechoslovak Army recruited in the Midwest.

23 Specific ethnic groups became key targets for harassment, particularly German American communities. Hamburgers, sauerkraut, and German measles became liberty sandwiches, liberty cabbage, and liberty measles. School boards instructed students to cut out all references of Germany from their textbooks and canceled German language classes. Officials in many of the cities forbade the playing of Bach and Beethoven in public orchestras, and German art was removed from some city museums. For many German Americans, war hysteria resulted in violence and even death.

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