By George Blyn

In a constructing economic system, agriculture must never in basic terms offer for a becoming population, but additionally produce a surplus for funding. For an historic, custom-domi­nated land like India, how does agriculture try to meet those calls for? during this ebook, the commercial background of India's agriculture and the level of its improvement, from 1891 to independence (1947), is heavily and authoritatively tested in a examine of output, acreage, and yield in keeping with acre for the eighteen vegetation that represent so much of India's agriculture.

The nature of switch for every of those eighteen vegetation, and for the foodgrain, non­foodgrain, and all-crop teams is defined and analyzed for the fifty-six-year interval as an entire, in addition to for shorter classes, for British India and 6 significant areas. Output and alternate facts are mixed to figure out developments within the availability of plants. those developments are in comparison with inhabitants figures to point alterations in India's welfare. to provide an explanation for the traits in acre productiveness, shut scrutiny is given to adjustments m the composition of output, depth of cultivation, agricultural expertise, and actual environment.

An broad therapy of the methodological difficulties encountered in assembling enough crop info and statistical measurements precedes the research of agricultural improvement. a correct account needs to stability the multitude of variables focused on the advanced process during which agricultural info was once compiled and evaluated: the reliability of the village recorders, the adjustments in boundary traces and the resultant alterations in documents, the effect of weather and international markets, in addition to the bigger styles of background and nature, battle and catastrophe.

The complete Appendix contains, between different resource fabrics, the once a year information for person vegetation and crop aggregates and their development premiums for person many years. The textual content comprises a number of tables, charts, and maps.

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Additional resources for Agricultural Trends in India, 1891-1947: Output, Availability, and Productivity

Example text

1 The estimating formula and estimators. The govern­ ment's" estimating formula was: Output = Crop Acreage x Stan­ dard Yield per Acre x Seasonal Condition of the Crop. The first and last factors varied annually; the standard yield factor was a constant in each district, at least for five years at a time. Acreage was area sown, regardless of whether the crop came to maturity, unless another crop was planted in its place. The standard yield per acre was not well defined, but was supposed to be the yield on land of average quality in a year of average weather conditions.

2. Comparability of coverage in the Estimates series. '3. The government estimating method and its scope for error and bias : estimating fonnula and estimators, crop acreage, standard yield per acre and seasonal condition. 4. Tests qf Estimates reliability : rationality and internal con,­ sisten'cy of p'rimary data, comparison with independent data. 5. Conclusion. • 't * 1. form of land revenue assessment. ' Agricultural Statistics of India was the first of 'these publica­ tions;" it gives details of land use in terms of area.

This may be even more realistic than the assumption of a uniform zero trend rate. If there was trend for some crop yields 'per acre, others might have been chang­ ing in about the same way. When the research reached a later stage it became possible to observe, at least in British India as a whole, the yield per acre trend rates for crops which were estimated in the above manner. 1 gives the average yield per acre trend rates for the first four refer�ce decades; rates for each reference decade are given in Appendix Table 5A.

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