By K.D. Kauffman
Matters surrounding agriculture have continually had satisfaction of position between educational learn in fiscal background. curiosity in agricultural concerns doesn't appear to come into style, after which fade into the heritage simply to come years later. certainly, agriculture used to be so important to the workings of ancient economies regular circulate of vital scholarship is still produced. past its significance of being a checklist of the earlier, it truly is transparent that a lot of the study during this region has vital coverage implications for either constructed and constructing economies. this sort of paintings highlights a huge aspect of doing such old study: studying from the previous to be able to comprehend larger the area at the present time. numerous articles contained in quantity of "Advances in Agricultural fiscal heritage" both implicitly or explicitly have classes or coverage implications for this day. quantity 2 of "Advances in Agricultural fiscal History", like quantity 1, comprises vital new paintings by way of either verified and younger teachers. also, this contemporary quantity displays, either geographically and methodologically, the wide scope of innovative paintings being performed during this sector. it's this kind of scholarship that we search to submit in destiny concerns. We invite students who paintings in all components of agricultural financial historical past to put up their paintings for booklet in destiny volumes of "Advances in Agricultural financial History".
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Additional info for Advances in Agricultural Economic History, Vol. 2 (Advances in Agricultural Economic History) (Advances in Agricultural Economic History)
Not seen in other slave societies. In the British West Indies and Portuguese South America, gender imbalances among whites led to widespread miscegenation. It was likely that European planters in the West Indies and elsewhere were initially as squeamish about racial mixing as their North American counterparts, but demographic forces quickly overcame reservations. Horowitz (1973) and Degler (1971) argue that by the mid-eighteenth-century, miscegenation between white planters and black slaves was widespread, mulatto progeny commonplace, and manumission the rule.
We now turn briefly to the capital market. In most of the country tenants did not encounter insurmountable difficulties in financing the purchase of their farm, according to Jensen (1957) – mainly for two reasons. First, there were well developed local loan markets. 5–3%. Second, as we have seen, the new proprietor could reduce the amount of the loan quite substantially by parceling out land from the farm; lenders were well aware of this fact. The policy of two public credit institutions Den kongelige Kreditkasse established 1786 to finance agriculture in general and Den almindelige Enkekasse a pension fund, shows the State’s concern for owner-occupancy.
There is an obvious parallel to this operation, that of similar English institutions during the nineteenth-century where ancient tenures survived amidst the dominant system of rack rent. Turner and Beckett, in their analysis of English college land, states that so called beneficial leases were favored by institutions because they received an income from the land but with minimum expenditure and supervision (Turner & Beckett, 1998, p. 106). Thirdly, the holders of estates under so-called strict settlement were effectively prevented from selling to tenants since they had no disposal of the sale proceeds.