By Robert F. Boszhardt

To be had December 2003 the most typical relics of the 12,000-year occupancy of the higher Mississippi River Valley could be the chipped stone projectile issues that local american citizens fixed to the ends in their spears, darts, and arrow shafts. this helpful consultant offers a key to determining a few of the varieties of issues came across alongside the higher Mississippi River within the Driftless area stretching approximately from Dubuque, Iowa, to crimson Wing, Minnesota, yet framed inside a slightly higher sector extending from the Rock Island Rapids on the smooth Moline-Rock Island quarter to the Falls of St. Anthony at Minneapolis-St. Paul. Logging tens of hundreds of thousands of miles and traveling inner most creditors from all walks of lifestyles on account that 1982, Robert Boszhardt has documented hundreds of thousands of projectile issues present in this sector. as well as drawings of every variety, he presents different permitted names in addition to names of similar issues, age, distribution, an outline (including size and width), fabric, and references for every style. The consultant is intended for the numerous avocational archaeologists who acquire projectile issues within the top Midwest and should be an invaluable reference software for pro box archaeologists in addition. Emphasizing the protection of web sites in addition to a mutual alternate of data among expert and avocational archaeologists, this consultant will demonstrate projectile issues as clues to the previous, time markers which include the most important information regarding the cultures of the Mississippi River Valley's early population.

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Additional info for A Projectile Point Guide for the Upper Mississippi River Valley (Bur Oak Guide)

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24 | l a t e pa l e o l a n c e o l a t e p o i n t s Hell Gap 1 cm 3 Named after the Hell Gap site in Wyoming, ten of these points were also associated with extinct bison in Area III of the Agate Basin site complex. other possible names or related points: These points are sometimes confused with reworked Agate Basin points. . . Hell Gap points are stratigraphically above Folsom points at the Hell Gap site, and Hell Gap associated bone beds are stratigraphically above Folsom and Agate Basin components at the Agate Basin site.

Grinding on the lower edges and base is typical. Flaking varies from a fine collateral pattern with a central ridge to a less regular pattern. 5– 5 in. 5– 5 cm/1–2 in. description: In the Upper Mississippi Valley, these points are often made of heattreated, locally available Galena and Prairie du Chien cherts. A few points documented in southwestern Wisconsin are made from Moline chert, imported from the lower Rock River in northwestern Illinois. material: Boszhardt 1991; Bell 1958; Carr 2001; Dudzik 1991; Florin 1996; Hill 1994; Holliday et al.

A series of Gainey points have been recovered from the Gail Stone site in Trempealeau County, Wisconsin, and these are all made from glossy tan and red Cochrane chert, the same material as the jasper flakes found at Withington. Both Gail Stone and Withington have also produced gray chalcedony flakes, and an unfluted lanceolate blade was found at Gail Stone. The gray chalcedony may be another variety of the Cochrane chert family. material: Boszhardt 1998a, 1991; Deller and Ellis 1984; Ellis and Deller 1986; Florin 1996; Mason 1962, 1997; Palmer and Stoltman 1976; Roosa and Deller 1982; Simons et al.

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